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COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study of Healthcare Students’ Perceptions of Life during the Pandemic in the United States and Brazil

COVID Cross-Sectional Survey Chart

In partnership with the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, Brazil, Laura Geer, PhD, MHS, Chair and Associate Professor of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and Rachel Radigan, recent SUNY Downstate MPH graduate, developed this study during a virtual global educational exchange experience and designed for research and educational purposes to assess personal social and cultural risk factors for students’ COVID-19 personal prevention behavior and perceptions about life during the pandemic.

Read the full article in IJERPH >

Rivaroxaban in Patients With Recent Peripheral Artery Revascularization and Renal Impairment: The VOYAGER PAD Trial

Rivaroxaban PillsIn this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Associate Dean for Research Administration, found that in the VOYAGER trial, the benefits of rivaroxaban were preserved among patients with recent peripheral revascularization including those with renal impairment, driven by a reduction in major limb events with no observed heterogeneity of bleeding by eGFR but limited power to exclude such risk in those with eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Read the full article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology >

Lipoprotein(a) and Benefit of PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Nominally Controlled LDL Cholesterol

Lipoprotein

Guidelines recommend nonstatin lipid-lowering agents in patients at very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains ≥70 mg/dL on maximum tolerated statin treatment. It is uncertain if this approach benefits patients with LDL-C near 70 mg/dL. Lipoprotein(a) levels may influence residual risk. In this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Associate Dean for Research Administration, concluded that in patients with recent acute #coronary syndromes and LDL-C near 70 mg/dL on optimized statin therapy, proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition provides incremental clinical benefit only when lipoprotein(a) concentration is at least mildly elevated.

Read the full article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology >

The Establishment of a Construction Union-Based Member Assistance Program: An Interview With Kyle Zimmer

International Union of Operating Engineers Local 478 Logo

Kyle Zimmer is the health and safety director and Members Assistance Program director of the International Union of Operating Engineers Local 478, which represents operating engineers in Connecticut. Mr. Zimmer initiated a union-based member assistance program to address mental health, suicide, and substance use among his members and their families. EOHS DrPH student, Christopher Jimenez, conducted an interview with Mr. Zimmer to understand the challenges in creating such a member assistance program.

Read the full article in New Solutions >

Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Effects on Neonatal Anthropometric Indices and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in a Middle Eastern Population

Pregnant woman's silhouette

Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) evokes extensive concerns regarding public health. In this international cross-disciplinary collaboration, Lori Hoepner, DrPH, MPH, Assistant Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, worked with a team of researchers in Iran at Shiraz University and a Canadian researcher from the University of Alberta to examine prenatal exposure to PAHs and neonatal indices. The study addresses the effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traffic and environmental tobacco smoke on neonatal anthropometric indices and thyroid-stimulating hormone in a Middle Eastern population. 

Read the full article in Chemosphere >

Cannabis Use among Cancer Survivors amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from the COVID-19 Cannabis Health Study

Photo of Cannabis Plant

Clinical indications for medicinal cannabis use include those with cancer, a subgroup advised to avoid exposure to COVID-19. In this study, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Dean for Student Engagement and Success and Assistant Professor of Community Health Sciences, aims to identify changes to cannabis use, methods of cannabis delivery, and coping strategies among cancer survivors since the pandemic by cancer status. She found that nearly 23% of cancer survivors reported an advanced cannabis supply of more than 3 months compared to 14.3% of adults without a history of cancer though most cancer survivors reported less than a one-month supply.

Read the full article in Cancers - MPDI >

Pattern of Use of Electronic Health Record (EHR) among the Chronically Ill: A Health Information National Trend Survey (HINTS) Analysis

Medical Records

Effective patient–provider communication is a cornerstone of patient-centered care. However, studies have shown that less than 50% of patients reported accessing the electronic health record (EHR) in a 12-month period. In this study, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Dean for Student Engagement and Success and Assistant Professor of Community Health Sciences, and Rose Calixte, PhD, MS, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, through HINTS survey analysis, found that senior respondents to the survey are less likely to share their medical records with another provider or use the EHR for secure direct messaging with their provider.

Read the full article in IJERPH >

Confidence Disparities: Pre-course Coding Confidence Predicts Greater Statistics Intentions and Perceived Achievement in a Project-based Introductory Statistics Course

Student on Bar Chart

Self-efficacy is associated with many educational outcomes. In this study, Janet Rosenbaum, PhD, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researcher Dr. Lisa Dierker, explored associations between pre-course math confidence and coding confidence with post-course statistical intentions and perceived achievement among students in a project-based statistics course at 29 private and public colleges and universities in Fall 2018 to Winter 2020 (n=917) using multilevel mixed-effects multivariate linear regression within multiply imputed data. Analyses suggested that interventions to increase math and coding confidence and reduce stereotype threat may increase students’ post-course motivations and perceived achievement and reduce racial and ethnic disparities.

View presentation on CAUSE >

Total Ischemic Event Reduction with Rivaroxaban after Peripheral Arterial Revascularization in the VOYAGER PAD Trial

Peripheral Artery

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. VOYAGER PAD demonstrated that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced first events by 15%. The benefit of rivaroxaban on total (first and subsequent) events in this population is unknown. In this study,  Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Associate Dean for Research Administration, evaluated the total burden of vascular events in PAD patients after LER and the efficacy of low dose rivaroxaban on total events.

Read the full article in Journal of the American College of Cardiology >

Effect of Sotagliflozin on Total Hospitalizations in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Worsening Heart Failure

Visual Abstract

In this study, lead author Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Associate Dean for Research Administration, used the SOLOIST-WHF trial to show that the sodium–glucose cotransporter-1 and sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor sotagliflozin reduced total cardiovascular deaths, hospitalizations, and urgent visits for heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure. The current analysis extends these findings by quantifying sotagliflozin's effect on a more comprehensive measure of patients' disease burden—specifically days alive and out of the hospital.

Read the full article in Annals of Internal Medicine Journal >

Perceptions and Patterns of Cigarette and E-Cigarette Use among Hispanics: A Heterogeneity Analysis of the 2017–2019 Health Information National Trends Survey

Cigarette and E-Cigarette

There are documented disparities in smoking behaviors among Hispanic adults in the U.S., but little is known about patterns of e-cigarette use. Using data from the HINTS 5 cycle 1–3, Rose Calixte, PhD, MS, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Dean for Student Engagement and Success and Assistant Professor of Community Health Sciences examined cigarette and e-cigarette history and current use, as well as perceptions of the dangers of e-cigarette use relative to cigarette use. They found significant differences in e-cigarette and cigarette use behaviors emerged by gender, age, ethnicity, and cancer history among Hispanic adults. 

Read the full article in IJERPH >

Association of Body Mass Index, Central Obesity, and Body Composition With Mortality Among Black Breast Cancer Survivors

Obese Black Woman

Are general and central obesity and body composition associated with mortality after diagnosis among Black breast cancer survivors? In this cohort study of 1891 Black breast cancer survivors, Kitaw Demissie, MD, PhD, Dean and Professor of the School of Public Health, and researchers found that higher waist-to-hip ratio and body adiposity at approximately 10 months after diagnosis were associated with significantly worse overall and breast cancer–specific survival. This study’s findings suggest that simple measures of body fat distribution and body composition can be useful clinical tools to identify Black breast cancer survivors who have a higher risk of death.

Read the full article in JAMA Oncology >

Disparities in Awareness of Hepatitis C Virus among U.S. Adults: An Analysis of the 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey

Hepatitis C Virus

The US Public Health Services Preventive Task Force updated hepatitis-C virus (HCV) screening 2020 guidelines to target adults aged 18-79 years. The study objective was to identify demographic groups reporting a lack of HCV awareness. Overall, the study found that 17% of adults never heard of HCV. Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Dean for Student Engagement and Success and Assistant Professor of Community Health Sciences, and researchers observed that non-Hispanic Asian, Hispanic, and adults younger than 55 years were significantly more likely to have never heard of HCV compared to their non-Hispanic-White counterparts. 

Read the full article in the Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases >

Fragmentation of Care Among Black Women With Breast Cancer and Comorbidities: The Role of Health Systems

Breast Cancer Ribbon

Black women are disproportionately burdened by comorbidities and breast cancer. The complexities of coordinating care for multiple health conditions can lead to adverse consequences. Care coordination may be exacerbated when care is received outside the same health system, defined as care fragmentation. In this study, Kitaw Demissie, MD, PhD, Dean and Professor of the School of Public Health, and researchers examined types of practice setting for primary and breast cancer care to assess care fragmentation. They concluded that strategies for care coordination and health care delivery across health systems and practice settings are needed for health equity.

Read the full article in JCO Oncology Practice >

COVID-19 Pandemic: What Has Work Got to Do With It?

Work Stress

The pandemic has caused much uncertainty, anxiety and stress, touching on every aspect of our lives. The impact of work stressors on the severity of COVID-19, particularly among essential workers, is discussed in this editorial published in the April 2021 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (JOEM) and co-authored by Paul Landsbergis, PhD, MPH, EdD, Associate Professor for the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. Research has shown that exposure to the work stressors can change the physiology of the body over time, leading to mental health problems. People who have one or more chronic conditions are more likely to suffer acute COVID-19 symptoms and higher death rates.

Read the full article in JOEM >

Opioids and the Workplace Prevention and Response Awareness Training: Mixed Methods Follow-Up Evaluation

Opioids

In this article, DrPH student, Eric Persaud, MEA, reports on a mixed methods evaluation of a national Worker Training Program. He found some evidence that the pilot program encouraged workers to introduce opioid policies and programs into the workplace. However, barriers to action remained including lack of leadership and management support, underlying the need for systemic change. Co-authors of this article include Aimee Afable, PhD, MPH (Associate Dean for Community Engagement and Associate Professor for the Department of Community Health Sciences); Laura Geer, PhD, MHS (Chair and Associate Professor for the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences); and Paul Landsbergis, PhD, MPH, EdD (Associate Professor for the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences).

Read the full article in SAGE Journals >

Ambient and Household Air Pollution on Early-Life Determinants of Stunting—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Children looking out the window

Stunting is an important risk factor for early growth and health implications throughout the life course, yet until recently, studies have rarely focused on populations exposed to high levels of particulate matter pollution or on developing countries most vulnerable to stunting and its associated health and developmental impacts. In this study, DrPH student, Russell Dowling, MPH, and his collaborators found a consistent and significant evidence of elevated risk of stunting-related health outcomes associated with household air pollution exposure. This evidence reinforces the importance of promoting clean air as part of an integrated approach to preventing stunting.

Read the full article in SpringerLink >

Bioterrorism: Applying the Lens of COVID-19

Bioterrorism Report

Our very own alumnus, Donell Harvin, DrPH, MPA, MPH, Chief of Homeland Security at DC Homeland Security and Emergency Management Agency, co-authored this report for the Counter Terrorism Preparedness Network (CTPN) to highlight how the threat of bioterrorism could accelerate against the backdrop of COVID-19 and advances in technology and biosciences. It also noted how an integrated approach towards preparedness for public health crises and bioterrorism needed to be applied, underpinned by investment in urban planning and design as well as the development of city infrastructure and services. Dr. Harvin presented the report at the CTPN’s International Bioterrorism Conference on March 30th, 2021.

Read the full CTPN report >

Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers Administering COVID-19 Vaccinations in the United States

Needlestick

As mass COVID-19 vaccination programs roll out across the country, we are potentially faced with compromising workers’ health for the sake of the broader public health, as it relates to occupational exposure to contaminated needles and syringes. In this article, Eric Persaud, DrPH student in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and another researcher raise awareness of needlestick injuries during mass COVID-19 vaccination programs. They provide suggestions for the role that engineering controls, such as devices with sharps injury prevention features play in protecting workers from exposure to bloodborne pathogens, as well as the importance of ongoing injury incident surveillance.

Read the full article in NEW SOLUTIONS >

Trends in Healthcare Facility-Onset Clostridioides difficile Infection and the Impact of Testing Schemes in an Acute Care Hospital System in New York City, 2016-201

Clostridioides Difficile

Healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and hospital reimbursement. A four-year review involving eleven hospitals of the NYC Health + Hospital system was undertaken in this study that is first-authored by Briana Episcopia, BS, RN, CIC, Director of Infection Prevention at Kings County Hospital Center, NYC Health & Hospitals and a current MPH student in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. 

Read the full article in ScienceDirect Journal of American Infection Control >

Horizons and Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy: HIV Prevention for Alcohol-Using Young Black Women, a Randomized Experiment

African American Woman and Alcohol

Black women are at disproportionately greater risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections than women of other ethnic/racial backgrounds. Alcohol use may further elevate the risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition and transmission. In this research, Janet E. Rosenbaum, PhD, Assistant Professor for the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers evaluated the efficacy of a Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy (GMET) module to complement the evidence-based horizons intervention in reducing alcohol-related STI/HIV risk, incident STIs, and risky alcohol use among young Black women. 

Read the full article in American Journal of Preventive Medicine >

Read NYU Press Release >

Prevalence and Risk Factors of COVID-19 Symptoms among U.S. Adults with Allergies

Adult with Allergies

According to international epidemiological and clinical studies, adults with existing chronic diseases are at highest risk of morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19. Population-based data on the physical and mental health impacts of COVID-19 among U.S. adults with allergies are needed. In this research, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Professor for the Department of Community Health Sciences, and investigators evaluated COVID-19 associated physical and mental health symptoms experienced in the past seven days among adults with allergies compared to the general U.S. adult population. They hypothesized that adults with allergies would be more likely to experience physical and mental health related symptoms than those without allergies during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

Read the full article in IJERPH >

Preventive Behaviors and Mental-health Related Symptoms Among Immunocompromised Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of the COVID Impact Survey

COVID Immunocompromised Adult

Disruption in care may be a barrier to identifying COVID-19 associated sequelae, such as mental health symptoms, among the immunocompromised. In this study, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Professor for the Department of Community Health Sciences, and resaerchers evaluated COVID-19-related preventive behaviors, with a focus on canceling doctor's appointments as a proxy for continuity of care, and compared COVID-19-related mental health symptoms among the immunocompromised with the general population.

Read the full article in PubMed >

Determinants of COVID-19 Preventive Behaviours Among Adults with Chronic Diseases in the USA: An Analysis of the Nationally Representative COVID-19 Impact Survey

Chronic Health Conditions

Preventive behaviours have been recommended to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Adults with chronic diseases (CDs) are at higher risk of COVID-19-related mortality compared to the general population. In this research, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Professor for the Department of Community Health Sciences, and collaborators examined preventive behaviors among adults with chronic health conditions. Their study found that adults with chronic health conditions were more likely to adhere to many of the recommended behaviors, but there was significant variability by education, employment, background, income, and rural place of residence.

Read the full article in BMJ Open >

Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation versus Endotracheal Intubation in Treatment of COVID-19 Patients Requiring Ventilatory Support

Ventilator

Respiratory failure is a frequent cause of mortality in COVID-19 victims. A study on COVID-19 patients receiving non-invasive ventilation (NIV 1) and intubation found 28-day mortality rates of 79% and 86%, respectively. A team of researchers from SUNY Downstate, which included Max Mecklenburg  (MPH 2016 and current COM student), Chanée Massiah (DrPH-C, Epidemiology), Clara Wilson (4th year MD-MPH), Sabrina Rosengarten  (MPH 2018 and current COM student), and Vice Dean Michael Joseph, PhD, MPH, compared all-cause 30-day mortality for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who underwent intubation first, intubation after NIV, or NIV only. This paper shows the effectiveness of various respiratory management approaches for severe COVID-19.

Read the full article in the American Journal of Emergency Medicine >

Evaluating Mental Health–Related Symptoms Among Cancer Survivors During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of the COVID Impact Survey

COVID Mental Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of adults in the United States because of recommended preventive behaviors such as physical distancing. In this study, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, and researchers used nationally representative data of 10,760 US adults from the COVID-19 Impact Survey to evaluate mental health symptoms and identify associated determinants among cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The study concluded that cancer survivors are reporting mental health symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly young adults, adults without a high school degree, women, and survivors with limited social support.

Read the full article in JCO Oncology Practice >

Thinking with Two Brains: Student Perspectives on the Presentation of Race in Preclinical Medical Education

Medical Education

There is growing concern that during their education medical students come to believe that “race” is a biological construct and that differential treatment of patients based on “race” is clinically beneficial. How “race” is presented to medical students may influence both their implicit biases and future clinical practices, potentially widening racial disparities in care. In this study, Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, and researchers conducted interviews with medical students, focusing on how they experience the presentation of race in their medical education, use race in their learning experiences, and envision using race as physicians in future clinical encounters.

Read the full article in the Journal of Medical Education >

Powered-Hand Tools and Vibration-related Disorders in US-Railway Maintenance-of-Way Workers

Railroad worker

Maintenance-of-way workers in North America who construct railroad tracks utilize specialized powered-hand tools, which lead to hand-transmitted vibration exposure. In this study, Paul Landsbergis, PhD, MPH, EdD, Associate Professor for the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and DrPH student, Marco Stillo, analyzed the survey given to the maintenance-of-way workers about neuro-musculoskeletal disorders, powered-hand tools and work practices. The survey showed that maintenance-of-way workers frequently reported typical hand-transmitted vibration-related symptoms, and appear to be at a risk for neuro-musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity.

Read the full article in J-STAGE >

Attitude Towards COVID-19 mHealth Use Among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions: A Secondary Data Analysis of the COVID-19 Impact Survey

Mobile Health App

Adults with chronic conditions are disproportionately burdened by COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. While COVID-19 mobile-health (mHealth) applications have emerged, research examining attitudes towards COVID-19 mHealth use among those with chronic conditions is scarce. Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Professor of the Department of Community Health Sciences, and three researchers demonstrate that attitudes towards COVID-19 mHealth use vary widely by modality (web-based vs. app) and across chronic health conditions..

Read the full article in JMIR mHealth and uHealth >

Guest Editors, Dr. Laura Geer and Dr. Lori Hoepner, Invite Manuscript Submission for IJERPH's Special Issue 'Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Environmental Chemicals'

Household Products

As public health responds to the global pandemic, we should increase awareness of exposures from household products as more time is spent “quarantined” in the home. We must also be responsive to health impacts of climate change. In response to these challenges, Laura Geer, PhD, MHS, Chair and Associate Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and Lori Hoepner, DrPH, MPH, Assistant Professor of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, invite papers to a special Issue they will be co-editing for the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH).

Click here for more information on the IJERPH's Special Issue and manuscript submission guidelines >

Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

Diabetes

The efficacy and safety of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as sotagliflozin in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease with or without albuminuria have not been well studied. In response, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcome Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial and found that in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, with or without albuminuria, sotagliflozin resulted in a lower risk of the composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo but was associated with adverse events.

Read the full article in The New England Journal of Medicine >

Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Recent Worsening Heart Failure

Heart

Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes among patients with stable heart failure. However, the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors when initiated soon after an episode of decompensated heart failure are unknown. In response, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcome Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial and found that in patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure, sotagliflozin therapy, initiated before or shortly after discharge, resulted in a significantly lower total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo.

Read the full article in The New England Journal of Medicine >

Lipoprotein(a) Lowering by Alirocumab Reduces the Total Burden of Cardiovascular Events Independent of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial

Heart

Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with first cardiovascular events in clinical trials. It is unknown if this relationship holds for total (first and subsequent) events. In this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers concluded that baseline lipoprotein(a) predicted the risk of total cardiovascular events and risk reduction by alirocumab. Lipoprotein(a) lowering contributed independently to cardiovascular event reduction, supporting the concept of lipoprotein(a) as a treatment target after ACS.

Read the full article in European Heart Journal >

Family History of Cancer Predicts Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Development

Respiratory System

Although past studies have evaluated the relationship between personal cancer diagnoses in individuals with asthma or allergy individuals, or by biomarkers such as immunoglobulin E, the heritability of such an effect, which may provide a survival benefit, has not been evaluated through family studies. In this research, Lori Hoepner, DrPH, MPH, Assistant Professor of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and four researchers report three studies that extrapolate the allergy-cancer relationship to assess intergenerational risk.

Access the article in Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology >

Work Characteristics, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Obesity: The National Quality of Work Life Survey

Body Mess Index

DrPH alumna, Stephanie Myers, used multiple linear regression for BMI and multiple logistic regression for obesity to estimate associations with 19 work characteristics plus one set of occupational categories controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, job physical exertion, and television watching, and found that night shift schedule and blue-collar work were related to increased BMI and obesity risk in U.S. workers in 2014. Identifying risk factors in blue-collar work and redesigning jobs to reduce those risk factors, and reducing night shift work, could play a role in reducing the prevalence of obesity in the USA. Collaborators of this study included Drs. Usha Govindarajulu, Michael A Joseph, and Paul Landsbergis.

Read the full article in Annals of Work Exposures and Health >

Excess Mortality in the United States During the First Three Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic

COVID Deaths

In this study, Janet Rosenbaum, PhD, Assistant Professor of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, estimates excess all-cause, pneumonia and influenza mortality during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the 11 September 2020 release of weekly mortality data from the United States (U.S.) Mortality Surveillance System (MSS) from 27 September 2015 to 9 May 2020, using semiparametric and conventional time-series models in 13 states with high reported COVID-19 deaths and apparently complete mortality data: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Washington. 

Read the full article in Cambridge University Press >

Examining COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors among Cancer Survivors in the United States: An Analysis of the COVID-19 Impact Survey

COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted adults with chronic diseases, and their health care delivery. Patterns of COVID-19–related preventive behaviors practiced by cancer survivors are unknown, including practices related to canceling doctor's appointments. Marlene Camacho-Rivera, ScD, MS, MPH, Assistant Professor of the Department of Community Health Sciences, and two researchers evaluated nationally representative data of 10,760 U.S. adults from the COVID-19 Impact Survey and found that cancer survivors were more likely to practice preventive behaviors.

Read the full article in American Associate for Cancer Research (AACR) Publications >

Gestational Diabetes Status and Dietary Intake Modify Maternal and Cord Blood Allostatic Load Markers

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Allostatic load (AL) defines cardiometabolic, inflammatory, and neuroendocrine changes in the body in response to internal and external stressors. It is largely unknown whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) alters maternal and fetal AL, which in turn affects GDM outcomes. Whether dietary intakes and quality can modify AL and thus influence GDM progression is also unknown. In this study, Lori Hoepner, DrPH, MPH, Assistant Professor of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and researchers from the College of Medicine found that GDM status and dietary intakes modify AL in the sample population. AL may serve as an indicator of GDM control. Future research on dietary interventions that can improve maternal AL markers during GDM is warranted.

Read the full article in BMJ Journals >

Barriers to Prostate Cancer Screening Among Indo Guyanese

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in many industrialized countries and is among the leading causes of death. Our DrPH alumnus, Harrynauth (Harry) Persaud, DrPH, MSHS, PA-C, recently conducted a study for his dissertation work, attempting to explore the barriers to prostate cancer screening among Indo-Guyanese men. The study found four major themes to be the culprit associated with a decrease in prostate cancer screening in this population.

Denise Bruno, MD, MPH, and Aimee Afable, PhD, MPH, chaired and served on the dissertation committee, respectively.

Read the original paper in the Journal of Community Health >  

Job Stress and Health of Elementary and Secondary School Educators in the United States

Educator

Elementary and secondary school educators face many work stressors, which appear to be increasing due to economic, political, and social trends. Therefore, Paul Landsbergis, PhD, MPH, EdD, Associate Professor for the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and MPH alumna, Elina Shtridler, along with other collaborators analyzed data from a 2017 national American Federation of Teachers survey of U.S. education staff, including data from two New York School districts that have adopted collaborative labor-management practices. Findings suggest the importance of reducing work stressors among U.S. educators. 

Read the full article in Sage Journals >

Association between Urinary Triclosan and Serum Testosterone Levels in U.S. Adult Males from NHANES, 2011-2012

Testosterone

Triclosan was introduced into the market in the 1970s and has since been used as an antimicrobial agent in a diverse array of consumer and personal care products. Although it has been widely used over a number of years, there is growing concern and debate over its safety and efficacy and its potential as an endocrine disruptor. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES, 2011-2012), former DrPH student, Judy Yan, examined the association of urinary triclosan on testosterone levels in adult men 18-65 years of age.

Senior authors of this study included Michael Joseph, PhD, MPH (Vice Dean for Academic and Student Affairs, and Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics), Simone Reynolds, PhD, MPH (Director of Online Learning and Instructional Innovation, and Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics), and Laura Geer, PhD, MHS (Chair and Associate Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences).

Read the full article in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health >

Effect of Alirocumab on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events According to Renal Function in Patients with a Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prespecified Analysis from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Randomized Clinical Trial

Renal Function

Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and normal-to-moderately impaired renal function. It is not known whether proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide similar benefit across a range of renal function. In this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers determined whether effects of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab to reduce cardiovascular events and death after ACS are influenced by renal function.

Read the full article in European Heart Journal >

Intensity of Statin Treatment After Acute Coronary Syndrome, Residual Risk, and Its Modification by Alirocumab: Insights from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial

Statin

Statins are pivotal to the secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events, but some patients are statin-intolerant. In this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers examined the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor alirocumab on the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events according to the intensity of background statin treatment.

Read the full article in SAGE Journals >

Evaluating Whether Young African-American Women Who Experience Reproductive Coercion or Birth Control Sabotage are More Likely to Become Pregnant

Pregnancy Test

A recent systematic review estimated that 5–13% of young adult women attending family planning clinics have experienced reproductive coercion, with greater prevalence among non-Hispanic African-American women. Janet Rosenbaum, PhD, Assistant Professor of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, co-authored a study that estimates the 3-month and lifetime incidence of reproductive coercion and birth control sabotage using longitudinal data in a sample of African-American women at high risk of HIV and evaluates whether women’s experience of reproductive coercion predicts subsequent pregnancy.

Read the full article in PMC Journals >

Dr. Judith H. LaRosa Publishes 8th Edition of Women's Health Textbook

Women's Health Textbook

The 8th edition of New Dimensions in Women's Health has recently been published. In this new edition, Judith H. LaRosa, PhD, RN, Distinguished Service Professor for the Department of Health Policy and Managment, and the co-authors take great care to provide in-depth coverage of important aspects of women's health and to examine the contributing epidemiological, historical, psychosocial, cultural, ethical, legal, political, and economic influences. This textbook is written for undergraduate students within health education, nursing, and women's studies programs.

Read the full description of Dr. LaRosa's textbook >  

Sustained Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering With Alirocumab in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES

Lipoprotein

In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) trial, alirocumab produced a marked reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and significantly reduced the primary composite cardiovascular endpoint. In this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers addressed the question of whether rising LDL-C levels over time in alirocumab-assigned patients could also reflect time-dependent “attenuation” of the lipid-lowering efficacy of alirocumab.

Read the full article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology >

Effect of Alirocumab on Lipoprotein(a) and Cardiovascular Risk After Acute Coronary Syndrome

Lipoprotein

Lipoprotein(a), a genetically determined low-density lipoprotein particle that contains apolipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein B-100 moieties, is believed to possess pro-atherogenic, pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory, and pro-oxidative properties. In this study, Michael Szarek, PhD, MS, Executive Director of the Center for Clinical and Outcomes Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and researchers found that baseline lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C levels and their reductions by alirocumab predicted the risk of MACE after recent ACS. Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab is an independent contributor to MACE reduction, which suggests that lipoprotein(a) should be an independent treatment target after ACS.

Read the full article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology >